زیاد اتفاق میافتد که زبان آموزان دو کلمه as و like را در مقام کاربرد اشتباه بگیرند. علت این امر معنای مشابه آنهاست. این کلمات برای مقایسه فعالیتها و یا شرایط مختلف مورد استفاده قرار میگیرند.
as and like are often confused since they can both be used for comparisons. There are, however, important differences.
We often use the structure as + adjective + as or as much as to say if something has, or doesn't have, the same amount of that quality as something else.
She loves curry as much as I do.
He's not as tall as his brother.
It's not as expensive as the other hotel.
That dog is as big as that child!
You also have to use as in the expression the same as.
Your phone is the same as mine.
Texting is not the same as speaking in person.
In the following comparisons, like is followed by a noun or a pronoun to say that two things are similar.
He's like a father to me.
She's acting like a child.
It's like a burger but with big mushrooms instead of bread.
There are lots of people like us.
It is also common to make comparisons using like with verbs of the senses.
She looks like her mother.
It sounds like a cat.
Nothing tastes like homemade lemonade.
It smells like medicine.
It feels like cotton.
As if and as though can be used to compare a real situation to an imaginary situation. They are followed by a clause (a subject and verb).
You look as if you've seen a ghost.
I felt as if I was floating above the ground.
You talk as though we're never going to see each other again.
We can say like or such as to give examples.
You could try a team sport like football, basketball or hockey.
You should take something soft, such as a towel, to lie on.
We can use as + noun to talk about a job or function.
I worked as a shop assistant for two years.
He used his coat as a blanket to keep warm.
as can be used as a conjunction to connect two phrases. It can have different meanings.
All the tickets were sold out as we got there too late.
As the road was closed, I had to park on the next street.
She called as I was getting out of the bath.
As they were arriving, we were leaving.
As we expected, it started to rain.
As you know, classes restart on 15 January.
As I said, I think this project will be a challenge.
** Note that in informal speech, people sometimes say like for 'in the way that'.
Like I said, I didn't know her.
"Enough" همان اندازه لازم است. می توان آن را با یک صفت ، یک ضرب المثل ، یک فعل یا یک اسم استفاده کرد. همچنین می تواند به عنوان ضمیر عمل کند.
enough means 'as much as necessary'. It can be used with an adjective, an adverb, a verb or a noun. It can also act as a pronoun.
enough comes after adjectives and adverbs.
I'm not tall enough to reach the top shelf.
Your marks are good enough to study engineering at university.
I couldn't write quickly enough and I ran out of time.
I've helped at conferences often enough to know what can go wrong.
enough comes after verbs.
I make sure I drink enough during the day.
I don't read enough but I'm going to start downloading books to my phone.
enough comes before nouns.
There isn't enough bread to make sandwiches.
Have you got enough money?
enough can also be used without a noun.
I'll get some more chairs. There aren't enough.
A: Do you want more coffee? B: No, I've had enough, thanks.
We know what the noun is because of the context.
When enough is used with an adjective and a noun, two positions are possible but the meaning changes.
We haven't got big enough envelopes.
We haven't got enough big envelopes.
When enough is after the adjective (big enough envelopes), it describes the adjective – the envelopes are too small. When enough is before the adjective (enough big envelopes), it describes the noun phrase – we have some big envelopes, but we need more.
We normally only use enough of when it is followed by a determiner or a pronoun (a/an/the, this/that, my/your/his, you/them, etc.).
There isn't enough of that bread to make sandwiches for everyone.
I've seen enough of his work to be able to recommend him.
There's enough of us to make a difference.
این کلمات برای پیوند دو ایده متضاد استفاده می شوند یا نشان می دهند که یک واقعیت واقعیت دیگر را شگفت انگیز می کند. همه آنها می توانند در ابتدا یا در وسط جمله استفاده شوند.
Although, even though, in spite of and despite are all used to link two contrasting ideas or show that one fact makes the other fact surprising. They can all be used at the beginning or in the middle of the sentence.
Despite the rain, we enjoyed the festival.
We enjoyed the festival, despite the rain.
The main difference between although, even though, in spite of and despite is that they are used with different structures.
After in spite of and despite, we use a noun, gerund (-ing form of a verb) or a pronoun.
They never made much money, in spite of their success.
In spite of the pain in his leg, he completed the marathon.
Despite having a headache, I had a great birthday.
The train was cancelled. In spite of that, we arrived on time.
Note that it is common to use in spite of and despite with the expression the fact that, followed by a subject and verb.
In spite of the fact that he worked very hard, he didn't pass the exam.
Despite the fact that he worked very hard, he didn't pass the exam.
After although and even though, we use a subject and a verb. Even though is slightly stronger and more emphatic than although.
I enjoyed the course, although I would have liked more grammar practice.
Although we saw each other every day, we didn't really know each other.
Even though she spoke very quietly, he understood every word.
She didn't get the job, even though she had all the necessary qualifications.
Though can be used in the same way as although.
Though I wasn't keen on the film, I thought the music was beautiful.
Though can also go at the end of the second phrase. This way of expressing contrasting ideas is most common in spoken English.
We waited ages for our food. The waiter was really nice, though.
ما این کلمات را با حال کامل به کار می بریم زیرا آنها به لحظه فعلی مربوط می شوند. در این صفحه به معنی و کاربرد این کلمات توجه شده است که در زمان استفاده کامل از آنها استفاده می شود.
We often use just, yet, still and already with the present perfect because they are related to the present moment. This page focuses on the meaning and use of these words when they are used with the present perfect.
Just used with the present perfect means 'a short time before'.
I've just seen Susan coming out of the cinema.
Mike's just called. Can you ring him back, please?
Have you just taken my pen?!
Just comes between the auxiliary verb (have/has) and the past participle.
Yet used with the present perfect means 'at any time up to now'. We use it to emphasise that we expect something to happen soon. Yet (in this context) is only used in negative sentences and questions.
Have you finished your homework yet?
I haven't finished it yet. I'll do it after dinner.
A. Where's Sam? B: He hasn't arrived yet.
Yet comes at the end of the sentence or question.
Still used with the present perfect means that something hasn't happened. We use it to emphasise that we expected the thing to happen earlier. Still (in this context) is only used in negative sentences.
I've been waiting for an hour and the bus still hasn't come.
They promised me that report yesterday but they still haven't finished it.
She still hasn't replied to my email. Maybe she's on holiday.
Still comes between the subject (the bus, they, etc.) and auxiliary verb (haven't/hasn't).
Already used with the present perfect means 'before now'. We use it to emphasise that something happened before something else or earlier than expected.
I've already spent my salary and it's two weeks before payday.
He wanted to see Sudden Risk but I've already seen it.
The train's left already!
Already can come between the auxiliary and the main verb or at the end of the clause.
ما می توانیم از این کلمات برای تشدید صفت ها ، قیدها و اسمها استفاده کنیم.
We can use so and such to intensify adjectives, adverbs and nouns.
We can use so with an adjective or adverb to make it stronger.
It's so hot today!
She looks so young in that photo.
He walks so slowly. It's so annoying!
If we are using the comparative form of the adjective or adverb, we use so much to make it stronger.
They were so much more innocent when they were younger.
I work so much more quickly when I can concentrate.
With a noun or adjective + noun, we use such to make it stronger.
You're such an angel!
It's such a hot day today!
They're such lovely trousers. Where did you buy them?
However, when we use much, many, little and few with a noun, we use so to make it stronger.
There are so many people here!
I've had so little time to myself this week.
We often use these so and such structures with that and a clause to say what the result is.
It was so cold that the water in the lake froze.
He was such a good teacher that we all passed the exam.
There's so much noise that I can't think!
Used to + infinitive and be/get used to + -ing look similar but they have very different uses.
ما برای گفتگو درباره یک وضعیت گذشته که دیگر درست نیست ، از استفاده می کنیم. این به ما "(used to + infinitive)" می گوید که در گذشته یک اقدام یا حالت مکرر وجود داشته است که اکنون تغییر کرده است
We use used to + infinitive to talk about a past situation that is no longer true. It tells us that there was a repeated action or state in the past which has now changed.
She used to be a long-distance runner when she was younger.
I didn't use to sleep very well, but then I started doing yoga and it really helps.
Did you use to come here as a child?
Be used to means 'be familiar with' or 'be accustomed to'.
She's used to the city now and doesn't get lost any more.
He wasn't used to walking so much and his legs hurt after the hike.
I'm a teacher so I'm used to speaking in public.
"(get used to)"ما برای گفتگو در مورد روند آشنایی با چیزی از استفاده می کنیم.
We use get used to to talk about the process of becoming familiar with something.
I'm finding this new job hard but I'm sure I'll get used to it soon.
It took my mother years to get used to living in London after moving from Pakistan.
I'm getting used to the noise now. I found it really stressful when I first moved in.
Be used to and get used to are followed by a noun, pronoun or the -ing form of a verb, and can be used about the past, present or future.
ما با این دو کلمه در مورد چیزهایی صحبت می کنیم که دوست داریم متفاوت باشند چه در زمان حال یا گذشته .
We use wish and if only to talk about things that we would like to be different in either the present or the past. If only is usually a bit stronger than wish.
We can use wish/if only + a past form to talk about a present situation we would like to be different.
I wish you didn't live so far away.
If only we knew what to do.
He wishes he could afford a holiday.
We can use wish/if only + a past perfect form to talk about something we would like to change about the past.
They wish they hadn't eaten so much chocolate. They're feeling very sick now.
If only I'd studied harder when I was at school.
We can use wish + would(n't) to show that we are annoyed with what someone or something does or doesn't do. We often feel that they are unlikely or unwilling to change.
I wish you wouldn't borrow my clothes without asking.
I wish it would rain. The garden really needs some water.
She wishes he'd work less. They never spend any time together.
شما میتونی یه خورده احساس سرما کنی یا به مقدار زیادی. صفات قابل درجه بندی نشان می دهد که یک چیزی درجه های مختلفی را دارد.
Most adjectives are gradable. This means we can have different levels of that quality. For example, you can be a bit cold, very cold or extremely cold. We can make them weaker or stronger with modifiers:
She was quite angry when she found out.
The film we saw last night was really funny!
It can be extremely cold in Russia in the winter.
Here is a list of some common gradable adjectives and some modifiers that we can use with them.
|Modifiers||a little/a bit →||pretty/quite →||really/very →||extremely|
|Adjectives||angry, big, boring, cheap, cold, expensive, frightening, funny, hot, interesting, old, pretty, small, tasty, tired, etc.|
ممکن نیست که یکی مقداری یا خیلی متأهل باشید. صفات غیر قابل درجه بندی درجه های مختلفی از کیفیت را نشان نمی دهند. از قید های مختلفی برای صفات قابل درجه بندی و غیر قابل درجه بندی استفاده میکنیم.
Some adjectives are non-gradable. For example, something can't be a bit finished or very finished. You can't be a bit dead or very dead. These adjectives describe absolute qualities. To make them stronger we have to use modifiers like absolutely, totally or completely:
Thank you, I love it! It's absolutely perfect!
Their farm was totally destroyed by a tornado.
My work is completely finished. Now I can relax.
Here is a list of some common absolute adjectives and some modifiers that we can use with them.
|Adjectives||acceptable, dead, destroyed, finished, free, impossible, necessary, perfect, ruined, unacceptable, etc.|
Adjectives like amazing, awful and boiling are also non-gradable. They already contain the idea of 'very' in their definitions. If we want to make extreme adjectives stronger, we have to use absolutely or really:
Did you see the final match? It was absolutely amazing!
After 32 hours of travelling, they were absolutely exhausted.
My trip home was really awful. First, traffic was really bad, then the car broke down and we had to walk home in the rain.
Here is a list of some common extreme adjectives and some modifiers that we can use with them.
|Adjectives||amazing, ancient, awful, boiling, delicious, enormous, excellent, exhausted, fascinating, freezing, gorgeous, terrible, terrifying, tiny, etc.|
تفاوت اصلی بین انگلیسی بریتانیایی و انگلیسی امریکایی در تلفظ است. برخی از کلمات در هر یک از انواع انگلیسی نیز متفاوت هستند و همچنین در نحوه استفاده از دستور زبان تفاوت های کمی وجود دارد. در اینجا پنج مورد از مهمترین تفاوتهای گرامری بین انگلیسی بریتانیایی و آمریکایی آورده شده است.
The main difference between British English and American English is in pronunciation. Some words are also different in each variety of English, and there are also a few differences in the way they use grammar. Here are five of the most common grammatical differences between British and American English.
In British English, people use the present perfect to speak about a past action that they consider relevant to the present.
The present perfect can be used in the same way in American English, but people often use the past simple when they consider the action finished. This is especially common with the adverbs already, just and yet.
|British English||American English|
He isn't hungry. He has already had lunch.
He isn't hungry. He already had lunch.
In British English, the past participle of the verb get is got.
In American English, people say gotten.
** Note that have got is commonly used in both British and American English to speak about possession or necessity. have gotten is not correct here.
|British English||American English|
You could have got hurt!
You could have gotten hurt!
In British English, a singular or plural verb can be used with a noun that refers to a group of people or things (a collective noun). We use a plural verb when we think of the group as individuals or a singular verb when we think of the group as a single unit.
In American English, a singular verb is used with collective nouns.
** Note that police is always followed by a plural verb.
|British English||American English|
My family is/are visiting from Pakistan.
My family is visiting from Pakistan.
In British English, the verbs have and take are commonly used with nouns like bath, shower, wash to speak about washing and with nouns like break, holiday, rest to speak about resting.
In American English, only the verb take (and not the verb have) is used this way.
|British English||American English|
I'm going to have/take a shower.
I'm going to take a shower.
In British English, people often use Shall I ...? to offer to do something and/or Shall we ...? to make a suggestion.
It is very unusual for speakers of American English to use shall. They normally use an alternative like Should/Can I ...? or Do you want/Would you like ...? or How about ...? instead.
|British English||American English|
It's hot in here. Shall I open the window?
It's hot in here. Can I open the window?
بارها و بارها وجود دارد که شما نیاز به استفاده از حروف بزرگ دارید - مثلاً برای شروع یک جمله یا برای ضمیر "من". در اینجا چند قانون مهم دیگر برای استفاده از آنها آورده شده.
There are lots of times when you need to use capital letters – for example, to start a sentence or for the pronoun I. Here are some other important rules for using them.
We capitalise days of the week, months and festivals, but not seasons.
His birthday party is on Thursday.
Schools are closed at Christmas.
It rains a lot in April and May, but the summer is very dry.
We capitalise the names of people and places, including streets, planets, continents and countries.
Bea Jankowski has lived on Church Street in Manchester for 20 years.
The Earth is the third planet from the Sun.
Russia is in both Europe and Asia.
Words that come from the names of places – for example languages, nationalities and adjectives that refer to people or things from a country, region or city – are capitalised. We also capitalise nouns and adjectives that come from the names of religions.
Some Canadians speak French.
Londoners eat a lot of Indian food.
Most Muslims fast during the day for Ramadan.
The names of organisations and usually the important words in book and film titles are capitalised. When a person's job title goes before their name, capitalise both. If the title is separate from their name, capitalise only their name.
Salome Zourabichvili, the president of Georgia, is visiting President Alvi tomorrow.
The chief executive officer lives in New York.
We are reading War and Peace with Ms Ioana, our teacher.
آپاستروف را برای نشان دادن مخفف ها و مالکیت ها استفاده میکنیم.
We use an apostrophe to show a contraction or possession.
We use an apostrophe to show where there are missing letters in contractions.
It's raining. (It's = It is)
Don't worry, it won't rain. (Don't = Do not; won't = will not)
She can't drive because she's broken her leg. (can't = cannot; she's = she has)
I'd like a coffee, please. (I'd = I would)
You'll be fine. (You'll = You will)
** Note that it's is a contraction of it is or it has. its is a possessive form of the pronoun it.
The dog is chasing its tail.
Are you sure it's OK for me to ring you so early?
It's rained a lot this week.
We also use an apostrophe with the letter s after a noun (normally a person, animal or group) to show that the noun owns someone or something.
My cat's favourite toy is a small, red ball.
Sadiq's parents live in Liverpool.
South Korea's economy is growing.
We use 's when the possessor is singular.
Marie's mother is going to Hong Kong.
We also use 's when the possessor is a plural noun that does not end in s.
The People's Republic of China
My cousin writes children's books.
When a plural noun ends in s, we put the apostrophe after the s (s').
This is a picture of my parents' house.
Our friend's new car is red. She just got it yesterday.
Our friends' new car is red. They just got it yesterday.
When a singular noun ends in s, we generally use 's.
James's brother-in-law is German.
He has a collection of Dickens's novels.
وقتی می خواهیم در مورد شباهت ها و تفاوت ها صحبت کنیم می توانیم از صفت ها در اشکال مقایسه ای آنها استفاده کنیم
When we want to talk about similarities and differences we can use adjectives in their comparative forms …
or we can use (not) as (adjective) as
We can also use expressions like different from, similar to and the same as.
A big difference – much, a lot, far
We can modify comparative adjectives to show that there is a big difference between things.
We can also say that things are completely or totally different from each other.
A small difference – slightly, a little, a bit, not much
We can show there is a small difference.
No difference – exactly, more or less, roughly
We can show that there is no difference or almost no difference.
جملات شرطی نتیجه یک شرط خاص را توصیف می کنند. بند اگر شرط را به شما بگوید و بند اصلی نتیجه را به شما می گوید ترتیب بندها معنی را تغییر نمی دهد.
Conditionals describe the result of a certain condition. The if clause tells you the condition (If you study hard) and the main clause tells you the result (you will pass your exams). The order of the clauses does not change the meaning.
If you study hard, you will pass your exams.
You will pass your exams if you study hard.
Conditional sentences are often divided into different types.
We use the zero conditional to talk about things that are generally true, especially for laws and rules.
If I drink too much coffee, I can't sleep at night.
Ice melts if you heat it.
When the sun goes down, it gets dark.
The structure is: if/when + present simple >> present simple.
We use the first conditional when we talk about future situations we believe are real or possible.
If it doesn't rain tomorrow, we'll go to the beach.
Arsenal will be top of the league if they win.
When I finish work, I'll call you.
In first conditional sentences, the structure is usually: if/when + present simple >> will + infinitive.
It is also common to use this structure with unless, as long as, as soon as or in case instead of if.
I'll leave as soon as the babysitter arrives.
I don't want to stay in London unless I get a well-paid job.
I'll give you a key in case I'm not at home.
You can go to the party, as long as you're back by midnight.
The second conditional is used to imagine present or future situations that are impossible or unlikely in reality.
If we had a garden, we could have a cat.
If I won a lot of money, I'd buy a big house in the country.
I wouldn't worry if I were you.
The structure is usually: if + past simple >> + would + infinitive.
When if is followed by the verb be, it is grammatically correct to say if I were, if he were, if she were and if it were. However, it is also common to hear these structures with was, especially in the he/she form.
If I were you, I wouldn't mention it.
If she was prime minister, she would invest more money in schools.
He would travel more if he was younger.
Do you know how to use third and mixed conditionals?
Conditionals describe the result of a certain condition. The if clause tells you the condition (If I hadn't been ill) and the main clause tells you the result (I would have gone to the party). The order of the clauses does not change the meaning.
If I hadn't been ill, I would have gone to the party.
I would have gone to the party if I hadn't been ill.
Conditional sentences are often divided into different types.
The third conditional is used to imagine a different past. We imagine a change in a past situation and the different result of that change.
If I had understood the instructions properly, I would have passed the exam.
We wouldn't have got lost if my phone hadn't run out of battery.
In third conditional sentences, the structure is usually: If + past perfect >> would have + past participle.
We can use mixed conditionals when we imagine a past change with a result in the present or a present change with a result in the past.
Here's a sentence imagining how a change in a past situation would have a result in the present.
If I hadn't got the job in Tokyo, I wouldn't be with my current partner.
So the structure is: If + past perfect >> would + infinitive.
Here's a sentence imagining how a different situation in the present would mean that the past was different as well.
It's really important. If it wasn't, I wouldn't have called you on your holiday.
And the structure is: If + past simple >> would have + past participle.
زمان آینده استمراری نشان میدهد که کاری در زمان آینده صورت خواهد گرفت و برای مدتی ادامه خواهد داشت.
We can use the future continuous (will/won't be + -ing form) to talk about future actions that:
When you come out of school tomorrow, I'll be boarding a plane.
Try to call before 8 o'clock. After that, we'll be watching the match.
You can visit us during the first week of July. I won't be working then.
Today we're taking the bus but next week we'll be taking the train.
He'll be staying with his parents for several months while his father is in recovery.
Will you be starting work earlier with your new job?
ما برای صحبت در مورد چیزی که قبل از یک زمان خاص در آینده تکمیل شود ، از آینده کامل ساده استفاده می کنیم.
We use the future perfect simple (will/won't have + past participle) to talk about something that will be completed before a specific time in the future.
The guests are coming at 8 p.m. I'll have finished cooking by then.
On 9 October we'll have been married for 50 years.
Will you have gone to bed when I get back?
We can use phrases like by or by the time (meaning 'at some point before') and in or in a day's time / in two months' time / in five years' time etc. (meaning 'at the end of this period') to give the time period in which the action will be completed.
I won't have written all the reports by next week.
By the time we arrive, the kids will have gone to bed.
I'll have finished in an hour and then we can watch a film.
In three years' time, I'll have graduated from university.
ما بسته به نوع برنامه ای که داریم ، از اشکال مختلف فعل استفاده می کنیم تا در مورد برنامه های خود برای آینده صحبت کنیم. یک برنامه خودجوش ، یک برنامه از پیش تصمیم گرفته شده یا یک برنامه تنظیم شده.
We use different verb forms to talk about our plans for the future, depending on what kind of plan it is: a spontaneous plan, a pre-decided plan or an arrangement.
We use will to talk about spontaneous plans decided at the moment of speaking.
Oops, I forgot to phone Mum! I'll do it after dinner.
I can't decide what to wear tonight. I know! I'll wear my green shirt.
There's no milk. I'll buy some when I go to the shops.
We use going to to talk about plans decided before the moment of speaking.
I'm going to phone Mum after dinner. I told her I'd call at 8 o'clock.
I'm going to wear my black dress tonight.
I'm going to go to the supermarket after work. What do we need?
We usually use the present continuous when the plan is an arrangement – already confirmed with at least one other person and we know the time and place.
I'm meeting Jane at 8 o'clock on Saturday.
We're having a party next Saturday. Would you like to come?
We often use the present continuous to ask about people's future plans.
Are you doing anything interesting this weekend?
ما می توانیم از افعال معین برای کسر استفاده کنیم - حدس می زنیم اگر چیزی با استفاده از اطلاعات موجود صحیح باشد. فعل معین که ما انتخاب می کنیم نشان می دهد که ما درباره احتمال چقدر مطمئن هستیم. این صفحه در مورد کسر مطالب مربوط به گذشته است.
We can use modal verbs for deduction – guessing if something is true using the available information. The modal verb we choose shows how certain we are about the possibility. This page focuses on making deductions about the past.
We use must have + past participle when we feel sure about what happened.
Who told the newspapers about the prime minister's plans? It must have been someone close to him.
The thief must have had a key. The door was locked and nothing was broken.
Oh, good! We've got milk. Mo must have bought some yesterday.
We can use might have or may have + past participle when we think it's possible that something happened.
I think I might have left the air conditioning on. Please can you check?
Police think the suspect may have left the country using a fake passport.
May have is more formal than might have. Could have is also possible in this context but less common.
We use can't have and couldn't have + past participle when we think it's not possible that something happened.
She can't have driven there. Her car keys are still here.
I thought I saw Adnan this morning but it couldn't have been him – he's in Greece this week.
We can use modal verbs for deduction – guessing if something is true using the available information. The modal verb we choose shows how certain we are about the possibility. This page focuses on making deductions about the present or future.
We use must when we feel sure that something is true or it's the only realistic possibility.
This must be her house. I can see her car in the garage.
He must live near here because he always walks to work.
Come inside and get warm. You must be freezing out there!
We use might, may or could to say that we think something is possible but we're not sure.
She's not here yet. She might be stuck in traffic.
He's not answering. He could be in class.
We regret to inform you that some services may be delayed due to the bad weather.
They all have the same meaning, but may is more formal than might and could.
We use can't when we feel sure that something is not possible.
It can't be far now. We've been driving for hours.
She can't know about the complaint. She's promoted him to team leader.
It can't be easy for him, looking after three kids on his own.
Note that these verbs, like all modal verbs, are followed by an infinitive without to.
ما اغلب از افعال با معانی مدالها برای صحبت در مورد اجازه و تعهد استفاده می کنیم.
We often use verbs with modal meanings to talk about permission and obligation.
We often use can to ask for and give permission.
Can I sit here?
You can use my car if you like.
Can I make a suggestion?
We also use could to ask for permission (but not to give it). Could is more formal and polite than can.
Could I ask you something?
Could I interrupt?
Could I borrow your pen for a moment, please?
May is the most formal way to ask for and give permission.
May I see your passport, please?
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We use can't and mustn't to show that something is prohibited – it is not allowed.
We use can't to talk about something that is against the rules, particularly when we didn't make the rules.
What does this sign say? Oh, we can't park here.
You can't take photos in the museum. They're really strict about it.
Sorry, we can't sell knives to under-18s.
We use must not to talk about what is not permitted. It is common on public signs and notices informing people of rules and laws.
Visitors must not park in the staff car park.
Baggage must not be left unattended.
Guests must not make noise after 10 p.m.
We use mustn't particularly when the prohibition comes from the speaker.
(Parent to child) You mustn't say things like that to your sister.
(Teacher to student) You mustn't be late to class.
I mustn't let that happen again.
We use have to and must to express obligation. There is a slight difference between the way we use them.
Have to shows us that the obligation comes from outside the speaker.
We have to wear a uniform when we're working in reception.
(Student to teacher) When do we have to hand in our homework?
Al has to work tomorrow so he can't come.
We sometimes call this 'external obligation'.
Must expresses a strong obligation or necessity. It often shows us that the obligation comes from the speaker (or the authority that wrote the sentence).
I must phone my dad. It's his birthday today.
(Teacher to student) You must hand in your homework on Tuesday or you will lose ten per cent of your mark.
(Sign on a plane) Seat belts must be worn by all passengers.
Note that we don't use must to express obligation in the past. We use have to instead.
I had to pay £85 to renew my passport last week.
We use don’t have to to show that there is no obligation. You can do something if you want to but it's not compulsory.
You don't have to wear a tie in our office but some people like to dress more formally.
You don't have to go to the bank to do a transfer. You can do it online.
You don't have to come with me, honestly. I'll be fine!