نفت یا پترول یک مایع غلیظ ، زرد تا سیاه است که در لایه های سنگ وجود دارد. این ماده از مواد آلی تشکیل شده است.
میلیون ها سال پیش گیاهان و حیوانات مرده در اعماق زمین زیر فشار و گرما زیاد به نفت تبدیل شده.
نفت خام, نفت در حالت طبیعی خود است. بسیاری از محصولات دیگر از نفت ساخته می شوند. هر روزه سیاره ما حدود 90 میلیون بشکه نفت مصرف می کند.
Petroleum or oil is a thick, yellow to black liquid found in rock layers. It is made up of organic material, formed
millions of years ago
. Deep in the ground pressure and heat transformed them into oil.
Crude oil is oil in its natural state. Many other products are made out of petroleum. Every day our planet consumes
about 90 million barrels of oil. Because oil needs millions of years to develop we will run out of the energy, which we
so much depend on.
History of oil
Oil has been used in one form or another over thousands of years but it has become really important to our economy in
the last 2 centuries. It has been the most
the end of World War II.
The first oil well was created in the middle of the 19th century in Pennsylvania. By 1870 oil production had spread to
other American states. During the latter part of the 19th century oil was also produced in Canada and in European
The automobile boom of the early 20th century led to a higher demand of oil. It played an important role as the main
fuel for tanks and planes in the two world wars.
By 1950 the United States had become the world's largest oil producer. In the second part of the 20th century Saudi
Arabia and Russia
Today more than 90 percent of all vehicles are powered by oil products. It is the most important source of energy in our
world. About 80% of the world's oil reserves are located in the Middle East. Other notable producers are Venezuela,
Great Britain and Indonesia.
What petroleum is made out of
Crude oil consists mainly of hydrocarbons,
. Each deposit of petroleum has a
different combination of hydrocarbons, thus making it a thicker or thinner liquid. It also has sulphur, nitrogen and
other elements in it.
How oil is produced
Before oil can be extracted from the earth geologists first must examine the land and the rock layers that lie
underneath the surface. Up to about 30 years ago drilling for oil was a great risk. Geologists could not guarantee that
oil would be found where they presumed.
it possible to find oil with a 70% success
Most of the world's oil is produced by drilling into the crust of the earth. Crude oil is found together with gas, which
floats above the oil layer. Sometimes gas is extracted together with oil during the drilling process, at other times it
is simply burned off when it comes to the surface.
Before oil can be brought to the surface a drilling rig is set up. Oil is often buried deep down in rock layers, so that
drills must go down to a depth of 10000 meters and more. Offshore rigs operate on platforms in the ocean. They drill for
oil underneath the ocean floor.
After it is brought up to the surface
, where it is made into petrol or gas, heating
oil, kerosene, fuel for airplanes and plastic products. Other chemicals and fertilizers are also made out of crude oil.
Not all oil is found in rock below the surface. Some lies trapped in oil sands, but production is still expensive.
The oil industry combines many different tasks. In addition to exploring new reserves, drilling and refining oil, the
industry must also bring oil products to the consumer.
across the oceans all over
the world. Pipelines bring oil over land from one part of a continent to another.
Price of oil
The price of oil changes constantly, depending on how much is produced and consumed. Many factors can influence the
price of oil. Especially wars and conflicts in oil-producing countries can lead to a rise in oil prices. The energy
crisis of the 1970s, for example, led to a
and threw the world's economy into a deep
recession. The Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) has had a great influence on production and the
price of oil since the 1970s.
Most of the world's oil is needed in the western world. The United States is the world's largest oil consumer. It uses
up about a
. Japan, the European Union and China are other major consumers of oil.
Environmental effects of oil production
Producing and consuming oil and oil products affects our environment in many ways.
It is a major cause of global warming because burning fuel releases carbon dioxide, thus causing the greenhouse effect.
Oil drilling is often damaging to the environment because chemicals are used to separate oil from water.
In the past decades there have been a series of
the world's oceans and seas. The
biggest disaster was the sinking of the Exxon Valdez off the coast of Alaska in 1989. In 2010 an oil spill in the Gulf
of Mexico spread to coastal areas in the USA and Mexico and polluted thousands of square kilometers of water.
Barrel (Unit of measurement for oil (159 liters))
Crude oil (Oil in its natural condition)
Crust (Hard outer layer of the earth)
Drilling rig (Large structure which has machines for extracting oil)
Geologist (Person who studies rocks)
Hydrocarbon (Chemical compound that consists of hydrogen and carbon)
Recession (Troubling time in the economy)
Refinery (Factory where crude oil is separated into its single elements)
reserves (Here; oil that has not yet been discovered)
Well (Deep hole in the ground)